Gut Brain Connection

From Belly to Brain: The Gut-Brain Connection

Updated: Mar 26, 2024Veronika Larisova
Have you ever experienced "butterflies" in your stomach when you're nervous or a gut feeling that something isn’t right? These reactions hint at the profound connection between our gut and brain, a relationship science is only beginning to comprehend fully.

Check out a few key points about this fascinating connection:

The Bi-Directional Pathway

The gut and brain are intrinsically linked through the enteric nervous system (ENS), a complex network of over 100 million neurons lining our gut. Often referred to as the 'second brain,' the ENS controls digestive processes, but it also communicates directly with our primary brain, affecting our emotions, cognition, and overall well-being.

The gut-brain axis conveys the two-way communication between our cognitive centres and the digestive system. This continuous dialogue is facilitated by the enteric nervous system in the gut, the central and autonomic nervous systems, as well as the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.

The gut microbiota, which includes bacteria, viruses, fungi, and archaea, along with their metabolites and by-products, play a crucial role in this communication. Key pathways of interest in gut-brain axis research include the vagus nerve, the immune and neuroendocrine systems, neurotransmitters, and metabolites. The gut-brain connection allows the brain to sense and respond to the environment in the gut. Conversely, our brain's state, especially during stress, can reshape and influence this microbial composition.

Vagus Nerve

Acting as the major neural conduit between the brain and the gut, the vagus nerve carries motor signals between the brain and organs, including the intestinal cells, which are also subject to the influence of the gut microbiota. In this way, the brain can ‘sense’ the environment in the gut. For instance, gut inflammation might send distress signals to the brain via vagal pathways, while mental stress can slow digestion. The simplest methods to stimulate the vagus nerve and achieve the ‘rest-and-digest’ state are meditation, diaphragmatic breathing, humming and cold exposure.

Neurotransmitters & the Gut

Most of the ‘feel-good’ hormones are produced in our gut by our gut microbiota.

Serotonin is a natural antidepressant responsible for regulating mood, appetite, sleep, memory, and learning. 90-95% of our serotonin is produced in the gut.

Dopamine, the neurotransmitter for desire and motivation, helps us strive, focus and find things interesting. 50% of our dopamine is produced in the gut.

GABA, the calming neurotransmitter, is also produced in the gut. It improves sleep and focus, reduces anxiety, stress, and inflammation.


Stress can alter the composition and diversity of gut microbiota. On the other hand, an imbalanced gut microbiome can exacerbate stress responses. This bidirectional communication is vital for understanding how mental stress can trigger gastrointestinal issues and how gut problems can amplify mental stress and some mental health illnesses.

Cold Water Immersion and its Effects

Immersion in cold water, such as ice baths, offers more than just physical invigoration. It stimulates the vagus nerve, promoting relaxation and enhanced digestion post-initial shock. This practice also bolsters mental clarity and triggers the release of endorphins, uplifting mood. Furthermore, regular cold exposure is beneficial for your immunity. Did you know that 70-80% of our immune cells reside in our gut?

Implications of Systemic Inflammation

Our intestines are lined with a barrier that determines what gets absorbed into the bloodstream and what is excreted. In a healthy gut, tight junctions between the cells of the intestinal wall regulate this process, allowing only beneficial nutrients to pass while keeping harmful substances out. However, certain triggers, such as prolonged stress, unhealthy diets, infections, or certain medications, can weaken these tight junctions. This weakened barrier, allows larger particles, toxins, and bacteria to seep into the bloodstream.

When unwanted substances enter the bloodstream due to increased intestinal permeability, the immune system recognises them as foreign invaders. In response, it produces inflammatory molecules and immune cells to combat these particles. While inflammation is a natural defence mechanism, chronic permeability or repeated exposure to triggers can result in persistent inflammation throughout the body, termed systemic inflammation. Over time, this continuous state of heightened immune response can contribute to various chronic illnesses, autoimmune conditions, and mental health issues.


Understanding the dialogue between our gut and brain is crucial to truly appreciating and caring for our well-being. By adopting a balanced whole foods diet rich in fibre, fermented foods, and varied nutrients, and free from ultra-processed foods and by understanding practices like cold water immersion, we can fortify this gut-brain connection.

Essentially, our gut and brain are engaged in a continual conversation that shapes every facet of our health. If you want to learn practical tips on how to keep your gut healthy, read our Gut Health Tips blog.



Veronika Larisova
Co-founder, Nutritionist, Exercise Physiologist
Follow Veronika on Instagram




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